2. Anatomy of the final intestine

The final intestine forms approximately the last 15 cm of the about 1.20 m long large intestine. Complex cross-linking from nerves, blood vessels and muscles ensure that intestine contents can be controlled and emptied. The stool is collected in the top of the final intestine and kept up until the next defecation. The end of the final intestine is formed by the anal channel, an approx. 5 cm long structure. The channel has the function of a valve, which can open and closed shut if necessary. Two circular muscle seals, the internal and external sphincter (closing) muscles, provide the control of the firmly formed stool. The soft container pads of the hemorrhoids hold back liquid stool and winds. Due to the highly sensitive nerves in the anal channel, it is possible to differentiate between gas, liquid or firm stool.

The so-called anal glands take place between the internal and external sphincter muscle. They have a separate secretion and play an important role in the the emergence of fistulas and abscesses.


The border between anal channel and final intestine is formed by a zipper-like line, the Linea Dentata. This consists the anal crypts, a numerously, swallow-nest-like recesses and the anal papils, which look like small creases. Only up to this borderline there is pain sensitivity. Above it, there is generally no pain. Therefore, illnesses like the intestinal cancer become apparent very late.

The veins of the anal edge does not have a function. Due to a blockage they can extend to a painful anal edge thrombosis, which is then often called as external hemorrhoids.


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Anal diseases - still a topic with taboo   |    What are Hemorrhoids actually?   |   How does the illness of the hemorrhoids developed?   |   How does the hemorrhoidal illness express itself?   |   How Hemorrhoids are treated?   |   How is the treatment in the Proktoklinik?   |    Anal fissure   |   Anal fistula / Anal abscess   |   Anal thrombosis   |   Illness of the Linea Dentata   |   Skin folds (Mariscs)   |   Condyloms

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